The BacterioEncephalon: a quorum sensing-based bacterial computer

This is a living and wet computer thats basis is bacterial quorum sensing. This type bacterial cell-to-cell communication enables bacterial cells to coordinate their behaviour, imbuing them, like ants and bees, with a form of social intelligence. Moreover, quorum sensing allows these sophisticated life forms to work together in teams,  to overcome obstacles to great for the few, to hunt prey as microscopic wolf packs, and to build biofilms and other complicated structures.

The BacterioEncephalon comprises two living bacterial components, a signal emitter, the bacterium Erwinia carotovora that produces the autoinducer C6-Homoserine Lactone (C6-HSL), and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, the signal detector. In wild type strains of C. violaceum, the production of their characteristic purple pigment, violacein, is controlled by a quorum sensing.  In the system here,  the protein LuxI produces the quorum sensing signal C6-HSL, and then  a second protein, LuxR, detects this and then coordinates changes in gene expression so that the production of the purple coloured violacein only occurs at high concentrations of C6-HSL,  and thus at high bacterial cell densities.  The signal detector in the BacterioEncephalon is CV026, which in a sense is a bacterial mute, in that it is a luxI mutant that cannot produce its own C6-HSL. Because of this, in pure culture, it grows as a white colony (and not a purple colony like wild type strains) because it doesn’t generate any C6-HSL for the LuxR component to detect.  However, in CV026 the quorum sensing signal detecting mechanism remains intact so that if CV206 is grown in proximity to a C6-HSL producing species of bacterium (such as E. carotovora here) it is capable of detecting and responding to this by producing violacein.

In the BacterioEncephalon E. carotovora and CV026 have both been inoculated into swim agar which has a reduced agar content and thus is semi-solid. This provides them with a freedom beyond normal bacteriological media,  allowing the two species of bacteria to swarm, move and interact with each other. Where the two species meet in the agar and interact, the media turns purple because of the production of  C6-HSL byE. carotovora and then its subsequent detection and response to this by CV026.

The BacterioEncephalon After Overnight Incubation. The movement of the two bacterial species is evident but there is limited interaction and thus limited production of the purple pigmented (below).Mur1

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The BacterioEncephalon After Three Days Incubation. The production of the purple pigment is now extensive and reveals manifold interactions and computations  of billions of living bacteria cells (below)

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Just wish I could understand what the bacteria are trying to tell me!

Parallel Worlds

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The microbiology of Four Marks” Pond forms the basis of this work

These works explore the basis of the reality of the world that we see through our unaided eyes, with that our technologies reveal. They compare images of natural water courses as our eyes would seen them with the reality that the microscope reveals. To better reveal the activity of the microorganisms living in these waters , I’ve developed a novel process, that rather than recording micro-videos in real-time, reports instead the paths taken by microscopic creatures under the microscope. The images generated, result from the accumulation of the activity tracks of these usually invisible life forms and reveal the hugely complicated dynamic of their manifold activities and interactions. The process generates images that are reminiscent of those of radioactive decay, or atomic particle collisions, as they are seen using cloud or bubble chambers. The process is transformative, in that it converts the mundane and disregarded, into something remarkable, not by changing it, but by revealing another level of reality that is usually withheld from us. In this way each natural water sample generates a unique energy signature of accumulated biological wavelengths and frequencies.

The works also challenge our macroscopic bias, as this microscopic life forms, and bacteria which are smaller still and cannot be seen at 200-times magnification, underpin all earthly ecologies. Without this life that our unaided eyes cannot not see, there would be none of the more familiar life that we can observe.

The microglyphs generated by the process are below:

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Parallel Words

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The microbiology of a green and murky pond in in Exmouth forms the basis of this work

 

These works explore the basis of the reality of the world that we see through our unaided eyes, with that our technologies reveal. They compare images of natural water courses as our eyes would seen them with the reality that the microscope reveals. To better reveal the activity of the microorganisms living in these waters , I’ve developed a novel process, that rather than recording micro-videos in real-time, reports instead the paths taken by microscopic creatures under the microscope. The images generated, result from the accumulation of the activity tracks of these usually invisible life forms and reveal the hugely complicated dynamic of their manifold activities and interactions. The process generates images that are reminiscent of those of radioactive decay, or atomic particle collisions, as they are seen using cloud or bubble chambers. The process is transformative, in that it converts the mundane and disregarded, into something remarkable, not by changing it, but by revealing another level of reality that is usually withheld from us. In this way each natural water sample generates a unique energy signature of accumulated biological wavelengths and frequencies.

The works also challenge our macroscopic bias, as this microscopic life forms, and bacteria which are smaller still and cannot be seen at 200-times magnification, underpin all earthly ecologies. Without this life that our unaided eyes cannot not see, there would be none of the more familiar life that we can observe.

The microglyphs generated by the process are below:

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Some Thoughts On The Totipotency Of Air

 

Taken with NightCapP2

Deep underground in the old limestone mines at Beer, Devon accidental and light driven ecologies emerge around the artifical lighting whilst everywhere else in the dark mine the walls appear to be lifeless. The ecologies above comprise mostly microscopic algae and cyanobacteria.  It strikes me, that in some sense, that the air itself is infused with a totipotent energy of biological ideas and intent, that permeates everywhere, patiently awaiting an opportunity to germinate and then to flourish. Here a simple light bulb and the damp limestone walls provide such an opportunity.

The ecologies above are relatively simple, but elsewhere, and deeper into the mine, I find more complex ecosystems containing higher plants (see images below). These are very complicated ecologies, which rely on successive arrival of    many different kinds of interacting life but again all of this must have been carried in by the air, and through this, in the absence of direct contact by the mine’s many human visitors too. Another accidental ecology feeding on dim artificial light, and another example of the totipotent potential air.

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Microgeography: Bus Stop Algal Ecology

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An algal ecology on a bus stop roof revealed after a snail has fed on part of it and left behind marks made by its radula.  

The microbiological world is a vast domain of life occupied by organisms which are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Because of their diminutive size, its denizens are largely ignored, yet in terms of impact and numbers, they represent the predominate form of life on earth.

In the familiar settings of our towns and cities, the same microorganisms have established thriving and complex ecologies that are almost always overlooked, yet the very existence of these and the extent of their vigour, can act as a powerful barometer for the health of our own urban environments.

Microgeography, is an approach that explores the relationships between urban environments and their microbial and human inhabitants through walking and informed observation, and often via a variety of playful and inventive strategies. Its overriding aim is to take pedestrians off their predictable macroscopic paths and to jolt them into a new awareness of the vast, but nearly always disregarded, urban microbiological landscape. These microcosms of microbiological life reflect the health of our own cities and towns, and thus through the process of microgeography, the observer is invited to question the influence of human activity upon this urban microbiological landscape, and hopefully through this, to extrapolate the impact of our actions on to the more visible world beyond.

Microbial life is everywhere if you know how to look. Here an ecology of algae on a glass bus stop roof in Farnham is revealed after a snail has fed on part of it and left behind marks made by its radula.

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Purified and Yellow Bacterial Happiness: Mycobacterium vaccae

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Mycobacteria are an important group of bacteria which includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in humans, including tuberculosis and leprosy. Whilst the diseases caused by this genus of bacteria can be devastating, in contrast one of its harmless members, Mycobacterium vaccae, is ubiquitous in soil, and exposure to it has been shown in many studies to reduce anxiety, and through this effect, even improve the ability to learn. Here this natural bacterium with powerful anxiolytic properties has been converted into a persuasive glitter or dust, that incorporated into clothing, food, or an art gallery’s air ventilation system, would make the wearer, eater, and observer of the art happier.